Victoria (VIC) ist der wirtschaftlich zweitwichtigste Staat Australiens und verfügt über die Bundeshauptstadt Melbourne, die zweitgrößte Metropole des fünften. Victoria ist ein Bundesstaat im Südosten von Australien mit der Hauptstadt Melbourne. Dieser kleinste Bundesstaat von Australien ist vor allem bekannt für die. Der Bundesstaat Victoria in Australien zeigt sich mit vielen Highlights, wie Melbourne, Philipp Island oder der Great Ocean Road hat aber auch Geheimtipps. Finance and insurance is Victoria's largest income producing sector, while the health care and social assistance sector is the casino five krefeld biggest employer. Victorians, and Melburnians Beste Spielothek in Ellund finden particular, are considered by some analysts to be more progressive than other Australians. Lokalt kallas den ibland Rutherglen brown muscat. Private schools also receive some public funding. On 1 Kavouras Bet – Einzigartige Roulette-Strategie | Mr Greenwrits were issued for the election of the first Online casino mobil betalning Legislative Council, and the absolute independence of Victoria from New South Wales was established proclaiming a new Colony of Victoria. Within a short time, the Imperial Parliament granted Victoria responsible government with the passage of the Colony of Victoria Act The census reveals that Australian median age has crept upward from 35 to 37 sincewhich reflects the population growth peak of — Victoria has the highest population density in any state in Australia, with population centres spread out over most of the state; only the far northwest and the Victorian Alps lack permanent settlement. States and territories Capitals Cities. Beste Spielothek in Manderbach finden water collected is of a very high quality and requires little chlorination treatment, giving the water a taste more like water collected in a rainwater tank. The State Library of Victoria is the State's research and reference library. The ground halbfinale darts also triple chance online kostenlos the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football and hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League AFL each year, drawing crowds of approximatelyVictoria produced in the decade — 20 1960 lotte ounces of gold, one-third of the world's output [ citation needed australien victoria. Victoria's north is almost always hotter than coastal and mountainous areas.
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Named in honour of Queen Victoria , who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was officially established in and achieved self government in Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in , with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne.
At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly the lower house and the Legislative Council the upper house.
The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria , currently Linda Dessau in office since Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts , including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly.
The economy of Victoria is highly diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, health, education, wholesale, retail, hospitality and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment.
Victoria's total gross state product GSP ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity.
Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, and theatres, and is also described as the world's sporting capital.
The ground is also considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football ,  and hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League AFL each year, drawing crowds of approximately , Victoria has eight public universities , with the oldest, the University of Melbourne , dating from Victoria, like Queensland , was named after Queen Victoria , who had been on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in , Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland , under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney.
It consisted of people five government officials, nine officers of marines, two drummers, and 39 privates, five soldiers' wives and a child, convicts, 17 convicts' wives, and seven children.
The expedition landed at Settlement Point now Corinella , on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, which was the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards.
Victoria's next settlement was at Portland , on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales.
Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne.
And in , Geelong was officially declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to On 1 July , writs were issued for the election of the first Victorian Legislative Council, and the absolute independence of Victoria from New South Wales was established proclaiming a new Colony of Victoria.
Later discoveries occurred at many sites across Victoria. This triggered one of the largest gold rushes the world has ever seen.
The colony grew rapidly in both population and economic power. In 10 years, the population of Victoria increased sevenfold from 76, to , All sorts of gold records were produced, including the "richest shallow alluvial goldfield in the world" and the largest gold nugget.
Victoria produced in the decade — 20 million ounces of gold, one-third of the world's output [ citation needed ].
Immigrants arrived from all over the world to search for gold, especially from Ireland and China.
Although some racism was directed at them,  the level of anti-Chinese violence was not as great as was seen at the Lambing Flat riots in New South Wales.
However, a riot at Buckland Valley near Bright occurred in Conditions on the gold fields were cramped and unsanitary; an outbreak of typhoid at Buckland Valley in killed over 1, miners.
In at Ballarat, an armed rebellion against the government of Victoria was made by miners protesting against mining taxes the " Eureka Stockade ".
This was crushed by British troops, but the discontents prompted colonial authorities to reform the administration particularly reducing the hated mining licence fees and extend the franchise.
Within a short time, the Imperial Parliament granted Victoria responsible government with the passage of the Colony of Victoria Act Some of the leaders of the Eureka rebellion went on to become members of the Victorian Parliament.
In , Victoria became a state in the Commonwealth of Australia. As a result of the gold rush, Melbourne had by then become the financial centre of Australia and New Zealand.
Between and , Melbourne was the capital of Australia while Canberra was under construction. It was also the largest city in Australia at the time.
Victoria has a parliamentary form of government based on the Westminster System. Legislative power resides in the Parliament consisting of the Governor the representative of the Queen , the executive the Government , and two legislative chambers.
Eighty-eight members of the Legislative Assembly are elected to four-year terms from single-member electorates. In November , the Victorian Legislative Council elections were held under a new multi-member proportional representation system.
The State of Victoria was divided into eight electorates with each electorate represented by five representatives elected by Single Transferable Vote.
The total number of upper house members was reduced from 44 to 40 and their term of office is now the same as the lower house members—four years.
Elections for the Victorian Parliament are now fixed and occur in November every four years. Prior to the election, the Legislative Council consisted of 44 members elected to eight-year terms from 22 two-member electorates.
The Premier of Victoria is the leader of the political party or coalition with the most seats in the Legislative Assembly.
The Premier is the public face of government and, with cabinet, sets the legislative and political agenda.
Cabinet consists of representatives elected to either house of parliament. It is responsible for managing areas of government that are not exclusively the Commonwealth's, by the Australian Constitution , such as education, health and law enforcement.
The current Premier of Victoria is Daniel Andrews. The post is usually filled by a retired prominent Victorian.
The governor acts on the advice of the premier and cabinet. The current Governor of Victoria is Linda Dessau. Victoria has a written constitution enacted in ,  but based on the colonial constitution, passed by the United Kingdom Parliament as the Victoria Constitution Act , which establishes the Parliament as the state's law-making body for matters coming under state responsibility.
The Victorian Constitution can be amended by the Parliament of Victoria, except for certain "entrenched" provisions that require either an absolute majority in both houses, a three-fifths majority in both houses, or the approval of the Victorian people in a referendum, depending on the provision.
Victorians, and Melburnians in particular, are considered by some analysts to be more progressive than other Australians.
Victorians are said to be "generally socially progressive, supportive of multiculturalism, wary of extremes of any kind".
Traditionally, Labor is strongest in Melbourne's working class western and northern suburbs, and the regional cities of Ballarat , Bendigo and Geelong.
The Liberals' main support lies in Melbourne's more affluent eastern and outer suburbs, and some rural and regional centres.
The Greens, who won their first lower house seats in , are strongest in inner Melbourne. Victorian voters elect 49 representatives to the Parliament of Australia , including 37 members of the House of Representatives and 12 members of the Senate.
Victoria is incorporated into 79 municipalities for the purposes of local government, including 39 shires, 32 cities, seven rural cities and one borough.
Shire and city councils are responsible for functions delegated by the Victorian parliament, such as city planning, road infrastructure and waste management.
Council revenue comes mostly from property taxes and government grants. At March Victoria had a population of 6,, Victoria's founding Anglo-Celtic population has been supplemented by successive waves of migrants from southern and eastern Europe , Southeast Asia and, most recently, the Horn of Africa and the Middle East.
Victoria's population is ageing in proportion with the average of the remainder of the Australian population. Around two-thirds of Victorians claim Scottish, English or Irish ancestry.
The greater Melbourne metropolitan area is home to an estimated 4,, people. Victoria is Australia's most urbanised state: State Government efforts to decentralise population have included an official campaign run since to encourage Victorians to settle in regional areas,  however Melbourne continues to rapidly outpace these areas in terms of population growth.
The government predicts that nearly a quarter of Victorians will be aged over 60 by The census reveals that Australian median age has crept upward from 35 to 37 since , which reflects the population growth peak of — In — there were homicides.
Roman Catholics form the single largest religious group in the state with Buddhism is the state's largest non-Christian religion, with , members as of the most recent census.
Victoria is also home of , Muslims and 45, Jews. Hinduism is the fastest growing religion. Amongst those who declare a religious affiliation, church attendance is low.
In the proportion of couples marrying in a church had dropped to Victoria's state school system dates back to , when the colonial government legislated to make schooling both free and compulsory.
The state's public secondary school system began in Before then, only private secondary schooling was available. Today, a Victorian school education consists of seven years of primary schooling including one preparatory year and six years of secondary schooling.
The final years of secondary school are optional for children aged over Victorian children generally begin school at age five or six. Victorian schools are either publicly or privately funded.
Public schools, also known as state or government schools, are funded and run directly by the Victoria Department of Education . Students do not pay tuition fees, but some extra costs are levied.
Private fee-paying schools include parish schools run by the Roman Catholic Church and independent schools similar to British public schools.
Independent schools are usually affiliated with Protestant churches. Victoria also has several private Jewish and Islamic primary and secondary schools.
Private schools also receive some public funding. All schools must comply with government-set curriculum standards. Students at these schools are exclusively admitted on the basis of an academic selective entry test.
As of August , Victoria had 1, public schools, Catholic schools and independent schools. Just under , students were enrolled in public schools, and just over , in private schools.
Over 61 per cent of private students attend Catholic schools. More than , students were enrolled in primary schools and more than , in secondary schools.
Retention rates for the final two years of secondary school were 77 per cent for public school students and 90 per cent for private school students.
Victoria has about 63, full-time teachers. Victoria has nine universities. The first to offer degrees, the University of Melbourne , enrolled its first student in The largest, Monash University , has an enrolment of over 70, students—more than any other Australian university.
Victoria has 18 government-run institutions of "technical and further education" TAFE. The first vocational institution in the state was the Melbourne Mechanics' Institute established in , which is now the Melbourne Athenaeum.
More than 1, adult education organisations are registered to provide recognised TAFE programs. In , there were about , students enrolled in vocational education programs in the state.
The State Library of Victoria is the State's research and reference library. It is responsible for collecting and preserving Victoria's documentary heritage and making it available through a range of services and programs.
Material in the collection includes books, newspapers, magazines, journals, manuscripts, maps, pictures, objects, sound and video recordings and databases.
In addition, local governments maintain local lending libraries, typically with multiple branches in their respective municipal areas. The state of Victoria is the second largest economy in Australia after New South Wales, accounting for a quarter of the nation's gross domestic product.
The economy grew by 1. Finance and insurance is Victoria's largest income producing sector, while the health care and social assistance sector is the state's biggest employer.
The shift towards service industries in the preceding decades has seen manufacturing lose its mantle as Victoria's largest employer and income producer.
Victorian farms range from small horticultural outfits to large-scale livestock and grain productions. A quarter of farmland is used to grow consumable crops.
It is also a leader in stone fruit production. The main vegetable crops include asparagus, broccoli, carrots, potatoes and tomatoes. Last year, , tonnes of pears and , tonnes of tomatoes were produced.
Victoria also exports live sheep to the Middle East for meat and to the rest of the world for breeding.
More than , tonnes of wool clip was also produced—one-fifth of the Australian total. Victoria is the centre of dairy farming in Australia.
The state also has 2. Most abalone and rock lobster is exported to Asia. Victoria has a diverse range of manufacturing enterprises and Melbourne is considered Australia's most important industrial city.
The post-World War II manufacturing boom was fuelled by international investment; attracted to the state by the availability of cheap land close to the city and inexpensive energy from the Latrobe Valley.
Machinery and equipment manufacturing is the state's most valuable manufacturing activity, followed by food and beverage products, petrochemicals and chemicals.
Prominent manufacturing plants in the state include the Portland and Point Henry aluminium smelters, owned by Alcoa ; oil refineries at Geelong and Altona ; a major petrochemical facility at Laverton ; and Victorian-based CSL , a global biotechnology company that produces vaccines and plasma products, among others.
Victoria also plays an important role in providing goods for the defence industry. Victoria proportionally relies on manufacturing more than any other state in Australia, constituting 8.
However, this proportion has been declining for three decades; in at the time of the early s recession manufacturing constituted Since , manufacturing employment has also fallen in both aggregate , to , workers and proportional The strong Australian dollar as a result of the s mining boom , small population and isolation, high wage base and the general shift of manufacturing production towards developing countries have been cited as some of the reasons for this decline.
Historically, Victoria has been a hub for the manufacturing plants of the major car brands Ford , Toyota and Holden ; however, closure announcements by all three companies in the s has meant Australia will completely lose their car manufacturing industry by the end of Holden's announcement occurred in May following Ford's decision in December the previous year Ford's Victorian plants, in Broadmeadows and Geelong, closed in October Victoria adopted the Torrens system of land registration with the Real Property Act The common law system continues to apply to all other private landholdings.
The oil and gas industries are centred off the coast of Gippsland in the state's east, while brown coal mining and power generation is based in the Latrobe Valley.
Brown coal is Victoria's leading mineral, with 66 million tonnes mined each year for electricity generation in the Latrobe Valley, Gippsland. Victoria also produces limited amounts of gypsum and kaolin.
The service industries sector is the fastest growing component of the Victorian economy. It includes the wide range of activities generally classified as financial and professional services; health care and social assistance, education, transportation, IT and communication services, government services and wholesale and retail trade.
Most service industries are located in Melbourne and the state's larger regional centres. Delstaten är den minsta, Tasmanien undantaget, till ytan och ligger i den sydöstra delen av Australien nära Melbourne.
Totalt finns det 18 vinregioner inom sex vinzoner. Skördeuttaget är ofta lägre här än i andra delar.
Historiskt började man odla vin här under talet. Man fick sin GI Andra druvor är pinot noir, merlot, cabernet franc, malbec, mataro, sangiovese, touriga, riesling, semillon och traminer.
Geelong pinot noir, chardonnay och shiraz ligger omkring 7,5 mil söder om Melbourne. Glenrowan shiraz, durif och fortifierade viner är en vinregion i den norra delen av Victoria, i inlandet.
Andra vanliga druvor är marsanne, cabernet sauvignon och chardonnay. Man fick sin GI är Förutsättningarna varierar stort i regionen och delar av den har det kanske svalaste klimatet i Australien.
Egentligen är det antal subregioner i Victorias alper som tillsammans bildar en region. Macedon Ranges pinot noir och chardonnay är en relativt liten region som ligger centralt i Victoria.
Mornington Peninsula pinot noir och chardonnay är en vinregion i Victoria strax söder om Melbourne. Klimatet är svalt men sommrarna är torra och varma.
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